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  • The Beginner's Guide

    Do you have plans to purchase an affordable laser welder to weld different materials? Or want to use a cheap laser welding machine to help expand your business? Have you known about laser welding before? The best laser welding machine manufacturer and supplier TPLASER will provide you with laser welding services. The following will show you a professional laser welding machine guide, hoping to help you better understand laser welder.

    What Is Laser Beam Welding (LBW)?

    Laser beam welding (LBW) is a fusion joining process, which relies on concentrated, coherent, monochromatic light hitting the heat generated by the weld joint to join materials. High energy of the laser beam vaporizes part of the joint metal, forming small holes surrounded by molten metal. As laser beam moves forward along the joint (or the workpiece under the laser beam moves backward), the molten metal flows from the front part around the small hole to the rear part and solidifies to form the weld metal. Laser welding can weld a variety of materials, including dissimilar materials with different physical properties.The main component of laser welding machine is the laser device. In the laser welding, laser device is placed between the end mirrors. The laser in the middle is excited or “pumped”, and the atoms or molecules in the middle are injected with higher heat than normal, forming a coherent, single-frequency source of electromagnetic radiation. The light reflects back and forth between the mirrors at the end, and each emission increases its energy. As a result, the device emits a laser beam, which can be focused on the workpiece through a lens or a reflective focuser into a very small spot. This allows the beam to have a high energy density to meet the requirements of various material processing tasks, such as welding, cutting, and heat treatment. Laser welding is a non-contact process, so there is no need for pressure. Inert gas protects the molten pool to avoid oxidation, and sometimes filler materials are also used. And the total heat input of laser welding is low, so the heat-affected zone grains are not easy to grow and the deformation of the workpiece is small

    What Is Laser Welding Machine?

    Laser welding machine, also often called laser welder, laser welding, is a machine used for laser material processing. Laser welder is a thermal processing technology that uses laser beam as a heat source. Defects such as holes, cracks, defect deformation, hardness reduction, blisters, etc. can be deposited, sealed, repaired and repaired.

    The principle of the laser welding machine is to use high-energy laser pulses to locally heat the material in a small area. The energy of the laser radiation diffuses into the material through heat conduction, and the material is melted to form a specific molten pool. Laser welding machine has a high degree of automation and can be controlled by a computer. Laser welding process is simple, speed is fast, the efficiency is high, and laser welding of any complicated shape can be carried out conveniently. The products repaired by laser welder will not deform, anneal, undercut or residual stress after repairing, and will not change the state of the metal structure. The repair precision is high. The coating thickness is from a few microns to a few millimeters, and only needs to be polished.  High-power argon protection can work for a long time.

    What Are The Application Industries Of Laser Welder?

    Laser welder is used more and more widely in the fields of machinery manufacturing, aerospace, automobile industry, powder metallurgy, biomedicine, and electronics industry.

    Sanitary ware field: laser welding of water pipe quick joints, reducer joints, tees, gate valves, showers.

    Glasses production industry: high-precision laser welding of the snap structure and frame of myopia glasses made of stainless steel, aluminum alloy and other materials.

    Hardware industry: laser welding of centrifugal impellers, teapots, door handles, etc., complicated hardware stamping parts, and iron castings.

    Automobile manufacturing industry: sealing welding of automobile engine cylinder gaskets, hydraulic tappets, automobile spark plug welding, filter element welding, etc.

    Medical equipment industry: laser welding of medical equipment, medical machinery stainless steel plate hydraulic seals and parts.

    Electronics industry: sealing breaking of intermediate relays, electric welding of connectors and connectors, electric welding of plastic casings and parts such as mobile phones and MP3s. Electric welding of motor shell and connection, optical fiber adapter connector, etc.

    Household hardware, kitchen supplies, sanitary ware, stainless steel door handles, electronic components, sensors, clocks, precision machinery and equipment, communications, artwork and other fields, and vehicle hydraulic tappets and other products with high compressive strength laser welding.

    Advantages Of Laser Welder 

    (1) The heat input can be reduced to a low requirement, the metallographic change range of the heat-affected zone is small, and the deformation caused by heat conduction is also low.

    (2) Laser weldingmachine process parameters of 32mm plate thickness single pass welding have passed the verification, which can reduce the time required for thick plate welding and even save the use of filler metal.

    (3) Laser welding machine no need to use electrodes, and there is no concern about electrode contamination or damage. And because it is not a contact welding process, the wear and deformation of the machine tool can be reduced to a minimum.

    (4) The laser beam is easy to focus, align and be guided by optical instruments. It can be placed at an appropriate distance from the workpiece, and can be re-guided between tools or obstacles around the workpiece. Other welding rules are subject to the above-mentioned space limitations.

    (5) The workpiece can be placed in a closed space (after vacuuming or the internal gas environment is under control).

    (6) The laser beam can be focused on a small area, and small and closely spaced parts can be welded.

    (7) The range of weldable materials is wide, and various heterogeneous materials can also be joined to each other.

    (8) Laser welder is easy to automate high-speed welding, and it can also be controlled by digital or computer

    (9) When welding thin materials or thin-diameter wires, it will not be as easy to be troubled as arc welding.

    (10) Laser welder is not affected by the magnetic field (arc welding and electron beam welding are easy), and can accurately align the weldment.

    (11) Laser welding machine can weld two metals with different physical properties (such as different resistances)

    (12) Laser welding no vacuum or X-ray protection is required.

    (13) If the through-hole welding is adopted, the depth-to-width ratio of the weld bead can reach 10:1

    (14) The device can be switched to transmit the laser beam to multiple workstations.

    How Many Types Of Laser Welding?

    1. According to the different ways of laser output energy, laser welding machine can be divided into: pulse laser welding and continuous laser welding

    ①Pulse laser welding: It is mainly used for spot welding and seam welding of thin metal materials. Its welding process is of thermal conductivity type, that is, laser radiation heats the surface of the workpiece and diffuses into the material through thermal conduction to control the waveform, width, peak power and peak power of the laser pulse. Parameters such as repetition frequency make a good connection between the workpieces. The biggest advantage of pulsed laser welding is that the overall temperature rise of the workpiece is small, the range of thermal influence is small, and the deformation of the workpiece is small.

    ②Continuous laser welding: mainly use fiber laser or semiconductor laser to continuously heat the surface of the workpiece for welding.

    1. According to the different power density of the spot after laser focusing, laser welder can be divided into: heat conduction laser welding, deep penetration welding

    ①Thermal conduction laser welding: Laser radiation heats the surface of the workpiece, and the surface heat diffuses into the material through thermal conduction. By controlling the waveform, width, peak power and repetition frequency of the laser pulse, the workpiece is melted to form a specific molten pool.

    ②Laser deep penetration welding: Generally, continuous laser beam is used to complete the connection of materials. The metallurgical physical process is very similar to electron beam welding, and the energy conversion mechanism is completed through small holes. Under the irradiation of the high-power density laser, the material evaporates to form a small hole. This steam-filled small hole is like a black body, which absorbs almost all the incident light energy. The heat is transferred from the outer wall of the high-temperature cavity to surround the cavity. Metal melts. The wall material continuously evaporates under the light beam to produce high-temperature steam, and the surface tension of the wall layer formed by the flow of liquid outside the hole wall is held in balance with the steam pressure continuously generated in the hole and maintains a dynamic balance.

    1. According to the different lasers, laser welder can be divided into: lamp pump, semiconductor, optical fiber, YAG

    The optical fiber transmission laser welding machine adopts optical fiber transmission laser, which has high electro-optical conversion efficiency and fast welding speed; optional CCD camera monitoring system, accurate positioning, real-time observation of the welding process; small focus spot, micro-welding; no consumables, maintenance-free, Long service life. Mainly used in stainless steel, aluminum alloy, steel, aluminum, gold, silver and other metals, welding of the same material and welding of dissimilar materials; widely used in precision 3C digital products, instrumentation, medical equipment, hardware appliances, jewelry, kitchen and bathroom, electronic components , Auto parts, craft gifts and other industries.

    Laser Welding Machine Parameters

    Power density of laser welder

    Power density is one of the most critical parameters in laser welding. With a higher power density, the surface layer can be heated to the boiling point within a microsecond time range, resulting in a large amount of vaporization. Therefore, high power density is beneficial for material removal processing, such as punching, cutting, and engraving. For lower power densities, it takes several milliseconds for the surface temperature to reach the boiling point. Before the surface layer vaporizes, the bottom layer reaches the melting point, which makes it easy to form a good fusion weld. Therefore, in conductive laser welding, the power density is in the range of 104~106W/cm2.

    Pulse waveform of laser welding machine

    Pulse waveform is an important issue in laser welding, especially for sheet welding. When a high-intensity beam hits the surface of the material, some energy on the metal surface will be reflected and lost, and the reflectivity changes with the surface temperature. During a pulse action period, the reflectivity of the metal changes greatly.

    Pulse width of laser welding machine

    Pulse width is one of the important parameters of pulse welding. It is not only an important parameter different from material removal and material melting, but also a key parameter that determines the cost and volume of laser welding machine.

    The influence of defocus

    Because the power density in the center of the spot at the laser focal point is too high, it is easy to evaporate into a hole. On each plane away from the laser focus, the power density distribution is relatively uniform. There are two defocusing methods: positive defocus and negative defocus. If the focal plane is above the workpiece, it is a positive defocus, otherwise it is a negative defocus. According to geometrical optics theory, when the distance between the positive and negative defocus plane and the welding plane is equal, the power density on the corresponding plane is approximately the same, but the shape of the molten pool obtained is actually different. When the defocus is negative, a greater penetration depth can be obtained, which is related to the formation process of the molten pool.

    Precautions For The Use Of Laser Welding Machine:

    1. Safety precautions: Before using laser welding machine, please read the following safety precautions carefully to ensure that the laser welding machine can be operated safely and correctly.

    (1). Do not touch the inside of laser welder when it is turned on.

    (2). It is not allowed to disassemble, install, or modify laser welding machine without permission.

    (3) Put laser welder in a level and safe place.

    (4). Grounding. If it is not grounded, you may get an electric shock when an abnormality occurs.

    (5). Do not peek or touch the laser.

    (6). During the operation, please wear protective glasses, protective gloves, long-sleeved jackets, leather aprons, etc. to protect your eyes and skin from splashes.

    (7). Avoid direct laser exposure to the skin.

    (8). Do not touch the work piece being welded or steel welded.

    (9). Only use the given cable.

    (10). Do not damage the power cord and various connecting wires.

    (11). If laser welding machine is abnormal, please immediately press the emergency stop button to shut down and stop using it.

    (12). It is strictly forbidden for people wearing cardiac pacemakers to approach laser welder. Magnetic fields will be generated when laser welding machine is working, which may affect the normal operation of the pacemaker and endanger the life of the patient.

    (13). Do not pour water on the laser welding machine. Sprinkling water on the laser welder may cause the welding machine to short-circuit or catch fire.

    (14). Do not put water containers on the laser welding machine. Sprinkling water on the machine may cause electric shock or fire.

    (15). Welding spatter may ignite flammable products, so keep away from flammable products when welding.

    (16). To avoid fire, it is forbidden to irradiate flammable materials with laser light.

    (17). In addition to welding specified workpieces, the welding machine cannot be used for other purposes.

    (18). Just in case, place a fire extinguisher next to the laser welding machine.

    (19). Laser welder should be regularly maintained and maintained to prevent any potential hazards.

    2. Precautions for the use of laser welding machine

    (1). Equipped with personnel with relevant knowledge and experience of lasers welding machine. The personnel in charge must not only master the safety lock key and password of the laser welder, but also instruct the operator on how to use laser welding machine.

    (2). Establish a dedicated laser welding area, and set up related signs such as “No people are allowed to approach” in the welding area.

    (3). Install the laser welding machine in a horizontal and firm place, not on an inclined place.

    (4). Please use this machine in an environment where the ambient temperature is 5℃~3 0℃ and the humidity is not more than 35%. The ambient temperature should not fluctuate too much. It is forbidden to use this welding machine in the following environments: Greasy environment; vibration environment; corrosive environment; high-frequency noise environment; humid environment; containing high concentrations of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur oxides (CO2, NOX , SOX) environment.

    (5).In winter, if the ambient temperature drops below 0°C, the water in the water tank will freeze and the water tank may freeze. Therefore, be especially careful to ensure that the ambient temperature of the welding machine does not fall below 0°C in winter. If the ambient temperature drops below 0°C, please drain the water in the water tank first, and refer to the introduction in the relevant chapters at the same time.

    (6).If the housing of the laser welding machine has stains or water, please wipe it with a dry cloth or a damp cloth. If the stain is not clean, use a neutral detergent or alcohol to wipe it clean. Do not wipe the machine with gasoline or paint thinner.

    (7).It is forbidden to put screws or coins inside or outside the machine, as this may cause a short circuit and damage laser welding machine.

    (8).Please operate the button gently with your hands, and do not touch the button with a screwdriver or other tools. In particular, do not touch the touch screen with sharp objects, as this will cause permanent damage to the touch screen. The touch screen should be operated with a finger or a dedicated touch pen.

    (9). Do not operate buttons and switches continuously, and make sure to press them only once each time. Repeated switching has an impact on the life of laser welder.

    How to Buy A Laser Welding Machine?

    1. Inquiry: Our sales staff will provide suitable laser welder configuration according to the material and thickness you cut and your budget.
    2. Communication and discussion: Both parties make configuration changes according to the customer’s requirements (provided that fiber laser machine quality and cutting effect are guaranteed), and solve customer’s machine parameters and configuration questions.
    3. Make a quotation: We will make a quotation with the detailed configuration of the machine according to the results of the communication and discussion, so that the customer can understand laser welding machine more clearly.
    4. Cooperation between the two parties: If everything has beed confirmed, we will make a proforma invoice(PI) and sign a contract with the customer.
    5. Start production: The customer arranges to pay a deposit after receiving the proforma invoice and contract. When we receive the deposit, we will immediately arrange the production machine and update the production process at any time.
    6. Shipment: When the machine is finished, we will send the customer a photo of the machine and test video (the whole machine will be tested before shipment to ensure that it can work well). After receiving the final payment from the customer, we will arrange for the machine to be sent to your country.
    7. Customs clearance: We will provide all necessary customs clearance documents according to the customer’s national customs requirements to ensure the smooth customs clearance of the customer.
    8. After-sales service: When the customer receives laser welder, our engineers will provide you with installation and operation services (of course, the machine also comes with installation and operation manuals and videos), and we will contact you via Email, Skype, Whatsapp or other contact software Communication, we are online 24 hours, if you have any questions about the machine, you can contact us at any time.

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